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• GT Options - Get $100 no deposit bonus! ##### A place to help anyone who has a uterus This sub is dedicated to providing information and resources to those in need of services in states that have passed the heartbeat bill. Please read the info in the sidebar 💖 ##### [TUTORIAL] How to use Multi-Monitors with Hybrid Graphics Card Intel-Nvidia in notebooks (tried with: Asus Rog Strix G531-GT) - DEBIAN BUSTER Hello guys! Im going to do this tutorial because i tried to use multi-monitor in my laptop for a long time and that was a big problem for my case. This tutorial is for people who have a hybrid graphics card and bumblebee in debian. My case: - Rog Strix G531-GT (notebook) - Intel® UHD Graphics 630 - GTX 1650 So, to it work, first you need to install all the NVIDIA drivers and get it working with the optirun command. In my case i tried stable nvidia drivers which was Version 418.152, but it have some bugs after install when i tried to configure the xorg.conf file, which when start says something about missing device "mouse0". I reinstall all the debian and tried to use the backports, which have the Version 440.100 (via buster-backports) of nvidia drivers, and it installed well. #ONLY USE BACKPORTS OR ONLY USE STABLE, DO NOT USE BOTH! FIRST, VERY IMPORTANT: You should check which driver is okay for you, maybe trying one, if that is good and u dont see "bugs" when trying to configure, use it... In my case 418.152 give me a lot of bugs... i tried 440.100 and it worked ok. If you are using backports, try to download everything at the BACKPORTS, and not the STABLE one! If u are using the STABLE one, continues using the STABLE To do it, first add the backport repository to /etc/apt/sources.list, which actually is deb http://deb.debian.org/debian buster-backports main contrib non-free deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian buster-backports main contrib non-free After that, to install linux headers and nvidia-driver do: - apt update - apt install -t buster-backports linux-headers-amd64 - apt install -t buster-backports nvidia-driver Reboot and after that u already have the nvidia-drivers installed, BUT not working because the system dont use the nvidia driver by default. Next step is installation of two packages: bumblebee-nvidia and primus. So now you need to install bumblebee: - apt install -t buster-backports bumblebee-nvidia primus - apt install -t buster-backports mesa-utils \you will need the) mesa-utils too for some commands I didnt need permissions to use the bumblebee commands, but if you need, follow that Post-installation You may need to blacklist the nouveau drivers, because we are using the nvidia proprietary drivers. To do it, run: -$ sudo bash -c "echo blacklist nouveau > /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nvidia-nouveau.conf"
- $sudo bash -c "echo options nouveau modeset=0 >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nvidia-nouveau.conf" then run -$ cat /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nvidia-nouveau.conf
And the output should be like that:
blacklist nouveau
options nouveau modeset=0
The nouveau drivers are blacklisted successfully!

Now we have a lot of configurations to do.
The next thing to do is go to /etc/bumblebee/bumblebee.conf and open with nano.
it should looks like:
# Configuration file for Bumblebee. Values should **not** be put between quotes ## Server options. Any change made in this section will need a server restart # to take effect. [bumblebeed] # The secondary Xorg server DISPLAY number VirtualDisplay=:8 # Should the unused Xorg server be kept running? Set this to true if waiting # for X to be ready is too long and don't need power management at all. KeepUnusedXServer=false # The name of the Bumbleblee server group name (GID name) ServerGroup=bumblebee # Card power state at exit. Set to false if the card shoud be ON when Bumblebee # server exits. TurnCardOffAtExit=false # The default behavior of '-f' option on optirun. If set to "true", '-f' will # be ignored. NoEcoModeOverride=false # The Driver used by Bumblebee server. If this value is not set (or empty), # auto-detection is performed. The available drivers are nvidia and nouveau # (See also the driver-specific sections below) Driver=nvidia # Directory with a dummy config file to pass as a -configdir to secondary X XorgConfDir=/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.d # Xorg binary to run XorgBinary=/uslib/xorg/Xorg ## Client options. Will take effect on the next optirun executed. [optirun] # Acceleration/ rendering bridge, possible values are auto, virtualgl and # primus. Bridge=auto # The method used for VirtualGL to transport frames between X servers. # Possible values are proxy, jpeg, rgb, xv and yuv. VGLTransport=proxy # List of paths which are searched for the primus libGL.so.1 when using # the primus bridge PrimusLibraryPath=/uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/primus:/uslib/i386-linux-gnu/primus # Should the program run under optirun even if Bumblebee server or nvidia card # is not available? AllowFallbackToIGC=false # Driver-specific settings are grouped under [driver-NAME]. The sections are # parsed if the Driver setting in [bumblebeed] is set to NAME (or if auto- # detection resolves to NAME). # PMMethod: method to use for saving power by disabling the nvidia card, valid # values are: auto - automatically detect which PM method to use # bbswitch - new in BB 3, recommended if available 

After that, go to /etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nouveau and open with nano.
add - BusID "", ex. BusID "PCI:00:02:0" in the Section "Device" \ to see the ID of your graphic cards, run in console: lspci | egrep 'VGA|3D')
it should looks like:
# Configuration file for Bumblebee. Values should **not** be put between quotes ## Server options. Any change made in this section will need a server restart # to take effect. [bumblebeed] # The secondary Xorg server DISPLAY number VirtualDisplay=:8 # Should the unused Xorg server be kept running? Set this to true if waiting # for X to be ready is too long and don't need power management at all. KeepUnusedXServer=false # The name of the Bumbleblee server group name (GID name) ServerGroup=bumblebee # Card power state at exit. Set to false if the card shoud be ON when Bumblebee # server exits. TurnCardOffAtExit=false # The default behavior of '-f' option on optirun. If set to "true", '-f' will # be ignored. NoEcoModeOverride=false # The Driver used by Bumblebee server. If this value is not set (or empty), # auto-detection is performed. The available drivers are nvidia and nouveau # (See also the driver-specific sections below) Driver=nvidia # Directory with a dummy config file to pass as a -configdir to secondary X XorgConfDir=/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.d # Xorg binary to run XorgBinary=/uslib/xorg/Xorg ## Client options. Will take effect on the next optirun executed. [optirun] # Acceleration/ rendering bridge, possible values are auto, virtualgl and # primus. Bridge=auto # The method used for VirtualGL to transport frames between X servers. # Possible values are proxy, jpeg, rgb, xv and yuv. VGLTransport=proxy # List of paths which are searched for the primus libGL.so.1 when using # the primus bridge PrimusLibraryPath=/uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/primus:/uslib/i386-linux-gnu/primus # Should the program run under optirun even if Bumblebee server or nvidia card # is not available? AllowFallbackToIGC=false # Driver-specific settings are grouped under [driver-NAME]. The sections are # parsed if the Driver setting in [bumblebeed] is set to NAME (or if auto- # detection resolves to NAME). # PMMethod: method to use for saving power by disabling the nvidia card, valid # values are: auto - automatically detect which PM method to use # bbswitch - new in BB 3, recommended if available # switcheroo - vga_switcheroo method, use at your own risk # none - disable PM completely # https://github.com/Bumblebee-Project/Bumblebee/wiki/Comparison-of-PM-methods ## Section with nvidia driver specific options, only parsed if Driver=nvidia [driver-nvidia] # Module name to load, defaults to Driver if empty or unset KernelDriver=nvidia PMMethod=auto # colon-separated path to the nvidia libraries LibraryPath=/uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/nvidia:/uslib/i386-linux-gnu/nvidia:/uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu:/uslib/i386-linux-gnu # comma-separated path of the directory containing nvidia_drv.so and the # default Xorg modules path XorgModulePath=/uslib/nvidia,/uslib/xorg/modules XorgConfFile=/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nvidia # If set to true, will always unload the kernel module(s) even with # PMMethod=none - useful for newer Optimus models on which the kernel power # management works out of the box to power the card on/off without bbswitch. AlwaysUnloadKernelDriver=false ## Section with nouveau driver specific options, only parsed if Driver=nouveau [driver-nouveau] KernelDriver=nouveau PMMethod=auto XorgConfFile=/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nouveau 

Do the same in /etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nvidia, and put the ID of the Discrete Nvidia Card.
and at the END of the file, add
Section "Screen" Identifier "Screen0" Device "DiscreteNVidia" EndSection 
it should look like:
Section "ServerLayout" Identifier "Layout0" Option "AutoAddDevices" "true" Option "AutoAddGPU" "false" EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "DiscreteNvidia" Driver "nvidia" VendorName "NVIDIA Corporation" # If the X server does not automatically detect your VGA device, # you can manually set it here. # To get the BusID prop, run lspci | egrep 'VGA|3D' and input the data # as you see in the commented example. # This Setting may be needed in some platforms with more than one # nvidia card, which may confuse the proprietary driver (e.g., # trying to take ownership of the wrong device). Also needed on Ubuntu 13.04. BusID "PCI:01:00:0" # Setting ProbeAllGpus to false prevents the new proprietary driver # instance spawned to try to control the integrated graphics card, # which is already being managed outside bumblebee. # This option doesn't hurt and it is required on platforms running # more than one nvidia graphics card with the proprietary driver. # (E.g. Macbook Pro pre-2010 with nVidia 9400M + 9600M GT). # If this option is not set, the new Xorg may blacken the screen and # render it unusable (unless you have some way to run killall Xorg). Option "ProbeAllGpus" "false" Option "AllowEmptyInitialConfiguration" "true" Option "NoLogo" "true" Option "UseEDID" "true" # Option "UseDisplayDevice" "none" EndSection Section "Screen" Identifier "Screen0" Device "DiscreteNVidia" EndSection 
REBOOT NOW, IS IMPORTANT!!

At this point, the TEST for bumblebee should be working!
Test
Install mesa-demos and use glxgears to test if if Bumblebee works with your Optimus system:
$optirun glxgears -info If it fails, try the following commands: 64 bit system:$ optirun glxspheres64
32 bit system:
$optirun glxspheres32 If the window with animation shows up, Optimus with Bumblebee is working. Note: If glxgears failed, but glxspheresXX worked, always replace "glxgears" with "glxspheresXX" in all cases. If the bumblebee still not working, you should look why isnt it working. You can ask me maybe i can help with some information! I tried a lot of things and maybe i can help. now finally, you can run anything with the optirun command, like: optirun virtualbox... or optirun (a game) and it will work with you graphic card. But still, when you connect a monitor at the HDMI output, the monitor will not work... For that, finnaly, we can do that: To use multi monitors, we need to see this section, which is what happen to me: Output wired to the NVIDIA chip At this point, you may need to configure the /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf and /etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nvidia, as it says in the tutorial. After that reboot your system and try again the command: optirun intel-virtual-output It should finally works, if you have connected another monitor in HDMI output and try the command optirun intel-virtual-output, it will start in the monitor a continuation for the X session, which works pretty well!! Well, that was hard to do for me, and i hope that information can help someone. If something is confusing or you cant do the second monitor work, just type in comments, i will try to help... One important thing to do is: do not try to use xorg.conf file, just delete it and keep the linux to do it by itself. Every time which i tried to use the xorg.conf file it broke my gnome startup and i need to start debian in recovery mode and go to /etc/X11, and run rm -R xorg.conf (which delete the xorg file), or rename it to the linux do not read the informations there. #TIPS: For a good use of that, you can go to debian keyboard configuration, and configure a new shortcut with the command optirun intel-virtual-output. When you press ctrl+alt+y that will start the second monitor for you :D https://preview.redd.it/3luethknnfj51.png?width=987&format=png&auto=webp&s=a7eaf1a4c029237fd9b25ca0194c99d84fcb83a5 so that is #learning_with_linux thanks https://preview.redd.it/8g753mxelfj51.jpg?width=4032&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1d24f618dcd3bb92a760a531112e5e3852e524d5 submitted by MrMineToons to debian [link] [comments] ##### [Fanatical] New Week Game Deals (Including The Jackbox Party Pack 5 (-40%), Dreamcast Collection (-85%), Alien: Isolation Collection (-78%), Sonic & All-Stars Racing Transformed (-77%), Motorsport Manager (-77%) & More) Hi Reddit, be the early bird and check out our early week gaming deals in the tables below. Title Steam Fanatical Discount USD GBP EUR Alien: Isolation Steam 77%$9.19 £6.89 €8.50
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##### Deltas awarded in "CMV: There is no need for other new pronouns outside of the ones we use now. ESPE...

Below is a list of the deltas awarded in this post.
Please note that a change of view is not necessarily a reversal, and that OP awarding a delta doesn't mean the conversation has ended.
For a full explanation of the delta system, see here.

# Deltas from Other Users

None yet.

so this is kinda a wierd story. I was planning to restart my computer. (cant remember why) I spend most of my time watching youtube videos so i had alot of tabs open. So i was watching the videos then deleting the tab but not opening new tabs. So i was down 2 i think 1 it was a pretty long video so i tried to open a youtube home page tab just to look while i listened to the video. And this is a short exerp of what i got.

##### T440p: vbios for enabling Nvidia dGPU?

I have a corebooted t440p (4.11, used this guide edit: I didn't use the Archfan coreboot repo, I used upstream Coreboot) that I run Arch Linux on. This machine has an Nvidia GT 730M on-board as a discrete option from the integrated Intel card. I've used nvramtool -w enable_dual_graphics=Enable to enable the Nvidia card, and it shows up in lspci output, but I can't get it to work. While working on this I've realized I likely didn't include the correct vbios blob:
[ 417.966203] NVRM: GPU 0000:02:00.0: Failed to copy vbios to system memory. [ 417.966351] NVRM: GPU 0000:02:00.0: RmInitAdapter failed! (0x30:0xffff:755) [ 417.966423] NVRM: GPU 0000:02:00.0: rm_init_adapter failed, device minor number 0 
I've looked through the subreddit and found some references to this (such as this post about VBiosFinder), and this makes it pretty clear to me how I'd go about extracting the vbios.
However it's not clear to me how I'm supposed to put this into my Coreboot config. For instance, I have the following options in my Coreboot config for existing binaries:
CONFIG_IFD_BIN_PATH CONFIG_ME_BIN_PATH CONFIG_GBE_BIN_PATH 
But I'm not seeing any option for vbios paths? I might assume it would be CONFIG_VBIOS_BIN_PATH, but I don't know that: the closest I think I've come is perhaps this post, but it's not super clear that this is what I should be doing. Are the cbfstool commands at this link the correct way of doing this?
Update: i've extracted the vbios file that corresponds to the correct vendor and device IDs, I'm just not really sure where to go from here. My guess is that I'd take my full coreboot rom, and then run the following command?
cbfstool build/coreboot.rom add -f /path/to/nvidia-vgabios.bin -n pci10de,1290.rom -t optionrom 
Thanks!

##### Introduction to AssemblyScript (Part 2)

This article is written by the CoinEx Chain lab. CoinEx Chain is the world’s first public chain exclusively designed for DEX, and will also include a Smart Chain supporting smart contracts and a Privacy Chain protecting users’ privacy.
In the last article we discussed how AssemblyScript (hereinafter referred to as AS) programs are compiled into WebAssembly (hereinafter referred to as Wasm) modules as a whole, and introduced in detail how various elements of the AS language are mapped to each section of the Wasm binary module. This article will go into functions, and we will discuss how the AS compiler uses the Wasm instruction set to implement grammatical elements. Before we start, let's briefly review the Wasm instruction set (for a detailed introduction to the Wasm module and instruction set, please refer to the previous articles):
Wasm uses stack-based virtual machine and bytecode, and its instructions can be divided into five categories:
• Control Instructions, including structured control instructions, jump instructions, and function call instructions.
• Parametric Instructions, only two in total, respectively drop and select.
• Variable Instructions, including local variable instructions and global variable instructions.
• Memory Instructions, including storage instructions and load instructions.
• Numeric Instructions, including constant instructions, test instructions, comparison instructions, unary operation instructions, binary operation instructions, and type conversion instructions.
Next, we will introduce details about how the AS compiler uses these five types of instructions through examples. For the convenience of testing, part of the sample codes given below call external functions for assistance of which implementation is not important. The declarations of these external functions are shown as below:
declare function printI32(n: i32): void; declare function printI64(n: i64): void; declare function printF32(n: f32): void; declare function printF64(n: f64): void; declare function randomI32(): i32; 

## Control Instructions

As mentioned earlier, Wasm control instructions include structured control instructions (block, loop, and if-else), jump instructions (br, br_if, br_table, and return), function call instructions (call and call_indirerct), plus nop and unreachable. Among them, structured control instructions and jump instructions together can be used to implement various control structures of the AS language, such as the if-else statement, for loop statement, and switch-case statement. The call instruction can be used to implement AS function calls, and the call_indirerct instruction can be used to support first-class functions.
The if-else statement of the AS language can be directly implemented using Wasm's if-else instruction. Here is an example:
export function printEven(n: i32): void { if (n % 2 == 0) { printI32(1); } else { printI32(0); } } 
The following is the compilation result (the compiled function bytecode has been decompiled into WAT. The same below):
(func $printEven (type 0) (param i32) (if (i32.rem_s (local.get 0) (i32.const 2)) (then (call$printI32 (i32.const 0))) (else (call $printI32 (i32.const 1))) ) )  The above example also shows the usage of the call instruction, which will not be described separately later. By the way, some simple if-else statements will be optimized by the AS compiler into select instructions. Here is an example: export function max(a: i32, b: i32): i32 { if (a > b) { return a; } else { return b; } }  The following is the compilation result: (func$max (type 2) (param i32 i32) (result i32) (select (local.get 0) (local.get 1) (i32.gt_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) ) ) 
Loop statements such as for, while, and do-while in the AS language can be implemented with Wasm's loop instruction. Note that the loop instruction cannot automatically form a loop, so it must be used with jump instructions like br, br_if or br_table. Let's look at a slightly more complicated example:
export function printNums(n: i32): void { for (let i: i32 = 0; i < n; i++) { printI32(i); if (i == 100) { break; } } } 
This example shows the usage of loop, block, br, and br_if instructions. Here is the compilation result:
(func $printNums (type 0) (param i32) (local i32) (loop ;; label = @1 (if ;; label = @2 (i32.lt_s (local.get 1) (local.get 0)) (then (block ;; label = @3 (call$printI32 (local.get 1)) (br_if 0 (;@3;) (i32.eq (local.get 1) (i32.const 100))) (local.set 1 (i32.add (local.get 1) (i32.const 1))) (br 2 (;@1;)) ) ;; end of block ) ;; end of then ) ;; end of if ) ;; end of loop ) 
The switch-case statement of the AS language can be implemented with Wasm's br_table instruction. The following is an example:
export function mul100(n: i32): i32 { switch (n) { case 1: return 100; case 2: return 200; case 3: return 300; default: return n * 100; } } 
In addition to the br_table instruction, this example also shows the usage of the return instruction. Here is the compilation result:
(func $mul100 (type 1) (param i32) (result i32) (block ;; label = @1 (block ;; label = @2 (block ;; label = @3 (block ;; label = @4 (br_table 0 (;@4;) 1 (;@3;) 2 (;@2;) 3 (;@1;) (i32.sub (local.get 0) (i32.const 1)))) (return (i32.const 100))) (return (i32.const 200))) (return (i32.const 300))) (i32.mul (local.get 0) (i32.const 100)) )  The first-class functions in the AS language are similar to the function pointers in languages such as C/C++, and can be implemented with the call_indirect instruction. Let's look at this example: type OP = (a: i32, b: i32) => i32; function add(a: i32, b: i32): i32 { return a + b; } function sub(a: i32, b: i32): i32 { return a - b; } function mul(a: i32, b: i32): i32 { return a * b; } function div(a: i32, b: i32): i32 { return a / b; } export function calc(a: i32, b: i32, op: i32): i32 { return getOp(op)(a, b); } function getOp(op: i32): OP { switch (op) { case 1: return add; case 2: return sub; case 3: return mul; case 4: return div; default: return add; } }  The compilation result is shown as below. Please pay attention to the table, elem fields, as well as the instructions of the calc() function: (module (type (;0;) (func (param i32 i32) (result i32))) (type (;1;) (func (param i32) (result i32))) (type (;2;) (func (param i32 i32 i32) (result i32))) (func$add (type 0) (i32.add (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (func $sub (type 0) (i32.sub (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (func$mul (type 0) (i32.mul (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (func $div (type 0) (i32.div_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (func$getOp (type 1) (param i32) (result i32) (;; ommitted ;;)) (func $calc (type 2) (param i32 i32 i32) (result i32) (call_indirect (type 0) (local.get 0) (local.get 1) (call$getOp (local.get 2)) ) ) (table (;0;) 5 funcref) (memory (;0;) 0) (export "memory" (memory 0)) (export "calc" (func $calc)) (export "getOp" (func$getOp)) (elem (;0;) (i32.const 1) func $add$sub $mul$div) ) 
In the end of this section, let's talk about the unreachable instruction. AS is designed to support exceptions after the Wasm exception handling proposal is passed. For the time being, an exception thrown will cause the abort() function to be called. We can disable abort by adding the compiler option --use abort= so that the compiler will replace the abort() function call with an unreachable instruction. In addition, we can also explicitly insert an unreachable instruction by directly calling the low-level built-in unreachable() function. Here is an example:
export function crash2(): void { unreachable(); } 
The compilation result is also simple:
(func $crash2 (type 1) (unreachable) )  ## Parametric Instructions The parametric instructions are relatively simple, with only drop and select. We’ve mentioned the select instruction in the introduction of the if-else statement, so will be no more details here. The drop instruction can be used to pop the extra operands at the top of the operand stack and throw them away. Let's look at a simple example: export function dropRandom(): void { randomI32(); }  The compilation result is also very simple: (func$dropRandom (type 0) (drop (call $randomI32)) )  ## Variable Instructions There are three local variable instructions: local.get, local.set, and local.tee. If optimization is not considered, every AS function can be compiled into a Wasm function by the compiler. Both reading and writing of function parameters and local variables can be completed by local variable instructions. Let's look at an example: export function addLocals(a: i32, b: i32): i32 { let c: i32 = a + b; return c; }  The following is the compilation result (for better observation of the result, the compiler optimization is turned off during the compiling of part of the sample code. The same below): (func$addLocals (type 1) (param i32 i32) (result i32) (local i32) (local.set 2 (i32.add (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (local.get 2) ) 
There are only two global variable instructions: global.get and global.set. The global variables of the AS language can be directly implemented using Wasm global variables, and they can be read and write through global variable instructions. Let’s look at an example:
let a: i32; let b: i32; let c: i32; export function addGlobals(): void { c = a + b; } 
The complete compilation result is as shown below:
(module (type (;0;) (func)) (func $addGlobals (type 0) (global.set 2 (i32.add (global.get 0) (global.get 1))) ) (global (;0;) (mut i32) (i32.const 0)) (global (;1;) (mut i32) (i32.const 0)) (global (;2;) (mut i32) (i32.const 0)) (export "addGlobals" (func$addGlobals)) ) 

## Memory Instructions

The Wasm virtual machine can carry a piece of virtual memory, with many instructions to operate this memory. Among these instructions, the load instructions can load data from the memory and put it into the operand stack. The store instructions can take data out of the operand stack and store it in memory. In addition, the current number of memory can be obtained through the memory.size instruction, and the memory can be expanded by page through the memory.grow instruction. We will use a simple structure to better observe the usage of memory instructions. Below is the definition of this structure:
class S { a: i8; b: u8; c: i16; d: u16; e: i32; f: u32; g: i64; h: u64; i: f32; j: f64; } 
The following function shows the usage of load instructions for i32 type:
export function loadI32(s: S): void { printI32(s.a as i32); // i32.load8_s printI32(s.b as i32); // i32.load8_u printI32(s.c as i32); // i32.load16_s printI32(s.d as i32); // i32.load16_u printI32(s.e as i32); // i32.load printI32(s.f as i32); // i32.load } 
The following is the compilation result. It can be seen from the offset immediate operand of the load instruction that the AS compiler has not rearranged the structure fields, but has performed proper alignment.
(func $loadI32 (type 0) (param i32) (call$printI32 (i32.load8_s (local.get 0))) (call $printI32 (i32.load8_u offset=1 (local.get 0))) (call$printI32 (i32.load16_s offset=2 (local.get 0))) (call $printI32 (i32.load16_u offset=4 (local.get 0))) (call$printI32 (i32.load offset=8 (local.get 0))) (call $printI32 (i32.load offset=12 (local.get 0))) )  The following function shows the usage of load instructions for i64 type: export function loadI64(s: S): void { printI64(s.a as i64); // i64.load8_s? printI64(s.b as i64); // i64.load8_u? printI64(s.c as i64); // i64.load16_s? printI64(s.d as i64); // i64.load16_u? printI64(s.e as i64); // i64.load32_s? printI64(s.f as i64); // i64.load32_u? printI64(s.g as i64); // i64.load printI64(s.h as i64); // i64.load }  The compilation result is as shown below. It can be seen that, in some cases, where the i64 load instructions are expected, the AS compiler uses i32 load instructions with the help of extend instructions. (func$loadI64 (type 0) (param i32) (call $printI64 (i64.extend_i32_s (i32.load8_s (local.get 0)))) (call$printI64 (i64.extend_i32_u (i32.load8_u offset=1 (local.get 0)))) (call $printI64 (i64.extend_i32_s (i32.load16_s offset=2 (local.get 0)))) (call$printI64 (i64.extend_i32_u (i32.load16_u offset=4 (local.get 0)))) (call $printI64 (i64.extend_i32_s (i32.load offset=8 (local.get 0)))) (call$printI64 (i64.extend_i32_u (i32.load offset=12 (local.get 0)))) (call $printI64 (i64.load offset=16 (local.get 0))) (call$printI64 (i64.load offset=24 (local.get 0))) ) 
The following function shows the usage of load instructions for float type:
export function loadF(s: S): void { printF32(s.i); // f32.load printF64(s.j); // f64.load } 
The compilation result is as shown below:
(func $loadF (type 0) (param i32) (call$printF32 (f32.load offset=32 (local.get 0))) (call $printF64 (f64.load offset=40 (local.get 0))) )  The store instructions are simpler than load instructions. The following example shows the usage of store instructions: export function store(s: S, v: i64): void { s.a = v as i8; // i32.store8 s.b = v as u8; // i32.store8 s.c = v as i16; // i32.store16 s.d = v as u16; // i32.store16 s.e = v as i32; // i32.store s.f = v as u32; // i32.store s.g = v as i64; // i64.store s.h = v as u64; // i64.store s.i = v as f32; // f32.store s.j = v as f64; // f64.store }  The compilation result is as shown below: (func$store (type 1) (param i32 i64) (i32.store8 (local.get 0) (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (i32.store8 offset=1 (local.get 0) (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (i32.store16 offset=2 (local.get 0) (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (i32.store16 offset=4 (local.get 0) (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (i32.store offset=8 (local.get 0) (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (i32.store offset=12 (local.get 0) (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (i64.store offset=16 (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (i64.store offset=24 (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (f32.store offset=32 (local.get 0) (f32.convert_i64_s (local.get 1))) (f64.store offset=40 (local.get 0) (f64.convert_i64_s (local.get 1))) ) 
Like the unreachable instruction introduced earlier, the memory.size and memory.grow instructions can also be generated by built-in functions. The following is a simple example:
export function sizeAndGrow(n: i32): void { printI32(memory.size()); printI32(memory.grow(n)); } 
The compilation result is as shown below:
(func $sizeAndGrow (type 0) (param i32) (call$printI32 (memory.size)) (call $printI32 (memory.grow (local.get 0))) )  ## Numeric Instructions As mentioned earlier, numerical instructions can be divided into constant instructions, test instructions, comparison instructions, unary and binary arithmetic instructions, and type conversion instructions. Specifically, there are four constant instructions in total. Numerical literals in the AS language can be implemented with constant instructions. Here is an example: export function consts(): void { printI32(1234); // i32.const printI64(5678); // i64.const printF32(3.14); // f32.const printF64(2.71); // f64.const }  Below is the compilation result: (func consts (type 1) (call$printI32 (i32.const 1234)) (call $printI64 (i64.const 5678)) (call$printF32 (f32.const 0x1.91eb86p+1 (;=3.14;))) (call $printF64 (f64.const 0x1.5ae147ae147aep+1 (;=2.71;))) )  There are only two test instructions: i32.eqz and i64.eqz. The following example shows the usage of i32.eqz instruction: export function testOps(a: i32): void { if (a == 0) { // i32.eqz printI32(123); } }  The following is the compilation result: (func$testOps (type 0) (param i32) (if (i32.eqz (local.get 0)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 123))) ) )  The relational operators supported by the AS language can be implemented with comparison instructions. The following example shows the usage of comparison instructions for i32 type: export function relOps(a: i32, b: i32, c: u32, d: u32): void { if (a == b) { printI32(0); } // i32.eq if (a != b) { printI32(1); } // i32.ne if (a < b) { printI32(2); } // i32.lt_s if (c < d) { printI32(3); } // i32.lt_u if (a > b) { printI32(4); } // i32.gt_s if (c > d) { printI32(5); } // i32.gt_u if (a <= b) { printI32(6); } // i32.le_s if (c <= d) { printI32(7); } // i32.le_u if (a >= b) { printI32(8); } // i32.ge_s if (c >= d) { printI32(9); } // i32.ge_u }  Here is the compilation result: (func relOps (type 2) (param i32 i32 i32 i32) (if (i32.eq (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (then (call$printI32 (i32.const 0)))) (if (i32.ne (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 1)))) (if (i32.lt_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (then (call$printI32 (i32.const 2)))) (if (i32.lt_u (local.get 2) (local.get 3)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 3)))) (if (i32.gt_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (then (call$printI32 (i32.const 4)))) (if (i32.gt_u (local.get 2) (local.get 3)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 5)))) (if (i32.le_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (then (call$printI32 (i32.const 6)))) (if (i32.le_u (local.get 2) (local.get 3)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 7)))) (if (i32.ge_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (then (call$printI32 (i32.const 8)))) (if (i32.ge_u (local.get 2) (local.get 3)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 9)))) )  Except for the negate operation for floating-point numbers, other unary arithmetic instructions are not directly used by the AS compiler, but can be generated by built-in functions. The following example shows the usage of i32 and f32 unary arithmetic instructions: export function unOps(a: i32, b: f32): void { printI32(clz(a)); // i32.clz printI32(ctz(a)); // i32.ctz printI32(popcnt(a)); // i32.popcnt printF32(abs(b)); // f32.abs printF32(-b); // f32.neg printF32(sqrt(b)); // f32.sqrt printF32(floor(b)); // f32.floor printF32(trunc(b)); // f32.trunc printF32(nearest(b)); // f32.nearest }  The compilation result is as shown below: (func unOps (type 3) (param i32 f32 f32) (call$printI32 (i32.clz (local.get 0))) (call $printI32 (i32.ctz (local.get 0))) (call$printI32 (i32.popcnt (local.get 0))) (call $printF32 (f32.abs (local.get 1))) (call$printF32 (f32.neg (local.get 1))) (call $printF32 (f32.sqrt (local.get 1))) (call$printF32 (f32.floor (local.get 1))) (call $printF32 (f32.trunc (local.get 1))) (call$printF32 (f32.nearest (local.get 1))) ) 
The binary operators supported by AS language can be implemented with binary operation instructions. The following example shows the usage of binary operation instructions for i32 type:
export function binOps(a: i32, b: i32, c: u32, d: u32, e: f32, f: f32): void { printI32(a + b); // i32.add printI32(a - b); // i32.sub printI32(a * b); // i32.mul printI32(a / b); // i32.div_s printI32(c / d); // i32.div_u printI32(a % b); // i32.rem_s printI32(c % d); // i32.rem_u printI32(a & b); // i32.and printI32(a | b); // i32.or printI32(a ^ b); // i32.xor printI32(a << b); // i32.shl printI32(a >> b); // i32.shr_s printI32(a >>> b); // i32.shr_u printI32(rotl(a, b)); // i32.rotl printI32(rotr(a, b)); // i32.rotr } 
Since the AS language does not have a "rotate" operator, we can only generate rotate instructions through built-in functions. The following is the compilation result:
(func binOps (type 3) (param i32 i32 i32 i32 f32 f32) (call $printI32 (i32.add (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call$printI32 (i32.sub (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.mul (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call$printI32 (i32.div_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.div_s (local.get 2) (local.get 3))) (call$printI32 (i32.rem_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.rem_s (local.get 2) (local.get 3))) (call$printI32 (i32.and (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.or (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call$printI32 (i32.xor (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.shl (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call$printI32 (i32.shr_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.shr_u (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call$printI32 (i32.rotl (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.rotr (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) )  The type conversion operation in the AS language can be immplemented by type conversion instructions. Here is an example: export function cvtOps(a: i32, b: i64, c: u32, d: u64, e: f32, f: f64): void { printI32(b as i32); // i32.wrap_i64 printI32(e as i32); // i32.trunc_f32_s printI32(e as u32); // i32.trunc_f32_u printI32(f as i32); // i32.trunc_f64_s printI32(f as u32); // i32.trunc_f64_u printI64(a); // i64.extend_i32_s printI64(a as u32); // i64.extend_i32_u printI64(e as i64); // i64.trunc_f32_s printI64(e as u64); // i64.trunc_f32_u printI64(f as i64); // i64.trunc_f64_s printI64(f as u64); // i64.trunc_f64_u printF32(a as f32); // f32.convert_i32_s printF32(c as f32); // f32.convert_i32_u printF32(b as f32); // f32.convert_i64_s printF32(d as f32); // f32.convert_i64_u printF32(f as f32); // f32.demote_f64 printF64(a as f64); // f64.convert_i32_s printF64(c as f64); // f64.convert_i32_u printF64(b as f64); // f64.convert_i64_s printF64(d as f64); // f64.convert_i64_u printF64(e); // f64.promote_f32 printI32(reinterpret(e)); // i32.reinterpret_f32 printI64(reinterpret(f)); // i64.reinterpret_f64 printF32(reinterpret(a)); // f32.reinterpret_i32 printF64(reinterpret(b)); // f64.reinterpret_i64 }  The compilation result is shown as below: (func cvtOps (type 4) (param i32 i64 i32 i64 f32 f64) (call$printI32 (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.trunc_f32_s (local.get 4))) (call$printI32 (i32.trunc_f32_u (local.get 4))) (call $printI32 (i32.trunc_f64_s (local.get 5))) (call$printI32 (i32.trunc_f64_u (local.get 5))) (call $printI64 (i64.extend_i32_s (local.get 0))) (call$printI64 (i64.extend_i32_u (local.get 0))) (call $printI64 (i64.trunc_f32_s (local.get 4))) (call$printI64 (i64.trunc_f32_u (local.get 4))) (call $printI64 (i64.trunc_f64_s (local.get 5))) (call$printI64 (i64.trunc_f64_u (local.get 5))) (call $printF32 (f32.convert_i32_s (local.get 0))) (call$printF32 (f32.convert_i32_u (local.get 2))) (call $printF32 (f32.convert_i64_s (local.get 1))) (call$printF32 (f32.convert_i64_u (local.get 3))) (call $printF32 (f32.demote_f64 (local.get 5))) (call$printF64 (f64.convert_i32_s (local.get 0))) (call $printF64 (f64.convert_i32_u (local.get 2))) (call$printF64 (f64.convert_i64_s (local.get 1))) (call $printF64 (f64.convert_i64_u (local.get 3))) (call$printF64 (f64.promote_f32 (local.get 4))) (call $printI32 (i32.reinterpret_f32 (local.get 4))) (call$printI64 (i64.reinterpret_f64 (local.get 5))) (call $printF32 (f32.reinterpret_i32 (local.get 0))) (call$printF64 (f64.reinterpret_i64 (local.get 1))) ) `

## Summary

In this article we discussed how the AS compiler implements AS syntax elements through various Wasm instructions. In simple terms: various control structures are implemented through control instructions, local variables and global variables are read and written through variable instructions, memory operations are performed through memory instructions, and operators and type conversions are implemented through numerical instructions. In the following articles, we will discuss in depth how AS implements object-oriented programming and automatic memory management.

# Groestlcoin June 2020 Release

As 2020 continues to unravel with people worried about their health, livelihoods, jobs and general way of life, one thing at least can remain constant - Groestlcoin's release schedule. We at the core Groestlcoin team really hope everyone is doing well and coping with what 2020 is throwing at us all. For anything to change in this world, major and seemingly dramatic change and chaos unfortunately needs to first ensue but rest assured everyone will come out of 2020 much stronger people! The Groestlcoin team have been working on a vast amount of new technology during these uncertain periods which we would like to share with you today.
Groestlcoin Core 19.1
The full list of changes in Groestlcoin Core 19.1 are too long to list here so we won't bore those who do not want to see every slight change here. For that, please go to https://github.com/Groestlcoin/groestlcoin/blob/2.19.1/doc/release-notes/release-notes-2.19.1.md. Instead we will list a general list of changes here. We recommend upgrading to this version if you are running a full node yourself.
• New User Documentation
• New and updated RPCs
• New Settings Implemented and other settings updated
• GUI Changes
• RPC and configuration options removed or deprecated
• P2P improvements
• Various low-level changes

### Windows

If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer.

### OSX

If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), run the dmg and drag Groestlcoin Core to Applications. Users running macOS Catalina need to "right-click" and then choose "Open" to open the Groestlcoin Core .dmg.

Linux Snapcraft: https://snapcraft.io/groestlcoin-core
Linux Flathub: https://flathub.org/apps/details/org.groestlcoin.groestlcoin-qt

### Source code:

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/groestlcoin
Zeus GRS iOS Wallet Release
Zeus GRS: A mobile Groestlcoin app for Lightning Network Daemon (LND) node operators.
To use Zeus, you must have a running Lightning Network Daemon (LND). You must provide Zeus GRS with your node's hostname, port number, and the LND macaroon you choose to use (hex format).
If you're running a Unix-based operating system (eg. macOS, Linux) you can run xxd -ps -u -c 1000 /path/to/admin.macaroon to generate your macaroon in hex format.

## Features:

• Scan LNDconnect functionality
• Dark and light theme
• Option to lock app with a pin
• Open Source
• Connect to your node - Zeus GRS let's users connect to their existing Lightning node, allowing them to send, receive and manage their channels.
• Multiple Wallets - Zeus GRS allows users to create and control as many wallets as they'd like.

https://apps.apple.com/us/app/zeus-grs/id1501565324

### Source code

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/zeus
HODL GRS iOS Wallet Release
HODL GRS connects directly to the Groestlcoin network using SPV mode, and doesn't rely on servers that can be hacked or disabled.
HODL GRS utilises AES hardware encryption, app sandboxing, and the latest security features to protect users from malware, browser security holes, and even physical theft. Private keys are stored only in the secure enclave of the user's phone, inaccessible to anyone other than the user.
Simplicity and ease-of-use is HODL GRS's core design principle. A simple recovery phrase (which we call a Backup Recovery Key) is all that is needed to restore the user's wallet if they ever lose or replace their device. HODL GRS is deterministic, which means the user's balance and transaction history can be recovered just from the backup recovery key.

## Features

• Simplified payment verification for fast mobile performance
• No server to get hacked or go down
• Single backup phrase that works forever
• Private keys never leave your device
• Import password protected paper wallets
• Payment protocol payee identity certification
• Apple Watch support
This application is licensed under MIT. There is no warranty and no party shall be made liable to you for damages. If you lose coins due to this app, no compensation will be given. Use this app solely at your own risk.

https://apps.apple.com/us/app/hodl-grs/id1502310881

### Source code

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/hodl-wallet-ios
GRS BlueWallet for iOS and Android Released
GRS Bluewallet is a thin client for Groestlcoin built with React Native and Electrum-GRS.

## Features

• Multi-currency, Supporting more than 20 FIAT currencies.
• Multi-language, Supporting more than 20 languages.
• Export TXHEX - You can get your transaction HEX (TXHEX) without broadcasting it, and only do it with the relay of your choice.
• Multiple wallets support - This wallet aims to support the highest wallet standards. Currently supporting HD, HD Segwit, HD BECH32, Native SegWit, Legacy single-address, SegWit single-address, and this app allows you to have as many wallets as you need on a single app instance.
• HD wallets - The Hierarchical Deterministic (HD) key creation and transfer protocol (BIP32), which allows creating child keys from parent keys in a hierarchy. The HD Wallets will generate you different public keys for each transactions.
• SegWit - SegWit enabled by default
• Full encryption - On top of the phone multi-layer encryption, GRS Bluewallet can encrypt everything with an added password. Biometric security (touch ID, Face ID) is not safe, so you will have an additional password to encrypt your wallet instead.
• Plausible deniability - A custom made feature thinking about your personal security. GRS Bluewallet allows you to define a different password which will decrypt a fake wallet set up. For any situation you are forced to disclose your access or when you don't want or you can't show your real wallet.
• Open Source under the MIT License.
• Watch-only wallets - Watch-only wallets allows you to keep an eye on your cold storage without touching your private key. Easily import your address or xpub and watch it from your app without ever touching it.
• Lightning Wallets - Wallets with support for the Lightning Network Protocol. Unfairly cheap and fast transactions. You can send, receive and refill your wallets.
• Bump and Cancel transactions - Ability to bump and cancel sent transactions with "Replace-by-fee" (RBF) and ability to Bump received transactions with "Child-pays-for-parent" (CPFP) on Native Segwit wallets (bech32/BIP84).
• Plug-in your Groestlcoin Full node new - Ability to plug-in your own Groestlcoin Full node through Electrum Personal Server (EPS), ElectrumX or Electrs. Don't trust, verify for a maximum sovereignty.
This application is under MIT license. There is no warranty and no party shall be made liable to you for damages. If you lose coins due to this app, no compensation will be given. Use this app solely at your own risk.

https://apps.apple.com/us/app/grs-bluewallet/id1518766083

### Source code

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/bluewallet
GRS Lightning Wallet Released
GRS Lightning: An easy-to-use cross-platform Groestlcoin Lightning wallet
GRS lightning leverages Neutrino to give users a lightweight option to control their own funds, as opposed to running a full node or trusting a third party to play custodian.
Features
• A User Experience for Everyone
• Fully Non-Custodial with LND
• Open Source

### Nota bene

This is still early technology and there's a risk of losing all of your funds. We recommend not putting in more money than you are willing to lose.
Using the same mnemonic seed between installations or device is not recommended.
Keep the app open till its fully synced, this will take a WHILE.

### Source code

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/lightning-app
GRS LND for Wordpress
GRS LND for GRS is a WordPress plugin for managing & using your GRS LND node directly from your WordPress administration panel.

## Features

• Provides a fully functional wallet interface, allowing you to send and receive funds across the Lightning Network with ease.
• The user interface is responsive and will adapt to fit any web enabled desktop, tablet or mobile device.
• You can search the Lightning Network graph, manage peer connections and open & close channels with ease.
• The plugin has QR support, enabling basic encoding & decoding of QR codes.
• GRS LND For WP also adds a number of WordPress 'short codes', allowing you to embed LND functionality directly in your website pages and posts.

### Installation

GRS LND For WP can be installed directly from WordPress. Simply navigate to the 'Plugins -> Add New' page and search for 'GRS LND For WP'. You can also view GRS LND For WP on the WordPress.org Plugin Directory
To install the plugin manually using source code from this repository:
Click the 'Upload Plugin' button, select 'Browse' and choose the release .zip that you downloaded in step 1.
Press 'Install Now'.
On the next screen, press the 'Activate' button to turn on the plugin.

### Source code

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/grs-lnd-for-wp
GRS Unstoppable Wallet - Android MainNet and TestNet
Unstoppable GRS is open source non-custodial fully decentralised wallet.
The engineering process behind this wallet is radically driven by libertarian principles. Exclusive control over what is yours.

## Features

• Control your crypto - Unstoppable GRS is a non-custodial wallet. The private keys never leave your phone.
• Keep your crypto safe - When you enable the lock code on your phone's operating system, no one will be able to access your wallet funds even if your phone is stolen or lost. In case of a device loss, Unstoppable GRS makes it easy to restore your wallet on another device.
• Be independently unstoppable - Unstoppable GRS was engineered to remain online and fully-functional indefinitely. Transfer Groestlcoins regardless of local government regulations. No entity can stop you from sending or receiving crypto or force Unstoppable GRS to stop working. Finally, you have a secure crypto wallet to spend Groestlcoin, and send & receive crypto.
• Stay private - With Unstoppable GRS you are connecting directly to decentralised blockchains without any restrictions or intermediaries. Only you can see your assets. There are no accounts, emails, phone numbers, identity checks, or third-party servers storing any private data.
This application is under MIT license. There is no warranty and no party shall be made liable to you for damages. If you lose coins due to this app, no compensation will be given. Use this app solely at your own risk.

### Source code

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/unstoppable-wallet-android
Groestlcoin Esplora Block Explorer Released (Mainnet and Testnet!)
Groestlcoin Esplora is an open-source Groestlcoin blockchain explorer. This JSON over RESTful API provides you with a convenient, powerful and simple way to read data from the Groestlcoin network and build your own services with it.

## Features

• Explore blocks, transactions and addresses
• Support for Segwit and Bech32 addresses
• Shows previous output and spending transaction details
• Quick-search for txid, address, block hash or height by navigating to /<query>
• Advanced view with script hex/assembly, witness data, outpoints and more
• Translated to 17 languages
• Light and dark themes
• Noscript support
• QR scanner
• API support
Groestlcoin Esplora is licensed under MIT. There is no warranty and no party shall be made liable to you for damages. If you lose coins due to Esplora, no compensation will be given. Use Groestlcoin Esplora solely at your own risk.

### Source code

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/esplora
Groestlcoin WebWallet updated to v1.5
Webwallet is a playground for Groestlcoin in javascript to experiment with. It supports multisig, OP_HODL, RBF and many more. Groestlcoin believes strongly in privacy, the live version does not collect and store IP or transaction data.

## Changelog 1.5

• Custom HD key derivation added
Live version available at https://www.groestlcoin.org/webwallet. But it is recommended to download the webwallet offline and run it on your pc. Open index.html to get started. The built-in wallet can be used with any (non) existing mail address and any password.
This application is licensed under MIT. There is no warranty and no party shall be made liable to you for damages. If you lose coins due to this app, no compensation will be given. Use this app solely at your own risk.

### Warning:

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/webwallet/archive/master.zip

### Live Web Wallet Version

https://www.groestlcoin.org/webwallet

### Source code

https://github.com/groestlcoin/webwallet
Groestlcoin LND Updated to v0.10
The Lightning Network Daemon (LND) is a complete implementation of a Lightning Network node.
Lnd has several pluggable back-end chain services including grsd (a full-node), groestlcoind, and neutrino (a new experimental light client). The project's codebase uses the grssuite set of Groestlcoin libraries, and also exports a large set of isolated re-usable Lightning Network related libraries within it.

## Changes

• Macaroon Bakery
• Multi-Path Payments
• Single-Shot MPP Payments by Default
• Custom Onion-Tunneled TLV Payment Metadata Records
• New Payment Type: keysend
• First-Class Rebalancing via Circular Payments to Self
• Local balance check
• Privacy Enhancement
• Validate Sorted Uncompressed Short Channel IDs
• Add payment_secret to BOLT 11 Payment Requests
• Cross-Implementation Protocol Compatibility Fixes
• Decoupled Min HTLC Settings
• Option Upfront Shutdown Support
• Sweep Small Outputs
• Autopilot External Score Trigger
• Channel Fitness Tracking
• Pathfinding Improvements
• Deeper Feature Bit Inspection
• Updates to Default gRPC Settings
• Uniform lncli Hex-Encoding
• New RPC Calls
• Default unsafe-disconnect Setting and Deprecation
• Peer to Peer Gossip
• Invoice Handling
• Channel State Machine
• On-Chain Contract Handling
• Architectural Changes
• Multi-Path Payments Sending Support
• Payment tracking
• Lifted Invoice Limit
• PSBT Funding
• Anchor commitment format
• Watchtowers tor support

### Source code

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/lnd/
Groestlcoin Eclair Updated to v 0.3.3.0
Groestlcoin Eclair (French for Lightning) is a Scala implementation of the Lightning Network. It can run with or without a GUI, and a JSON API is also available.
Groestlcoin Eclair requires Groestlcoin Core 2.17.1 or higher. If you are upgrading an existing wallet, you need to create a new address and send all your funds to that address.
Groestlcoin Eclair needs a synchronised, segwit-ready, zeromq-enabled, wallet-enabled, non-pruning, tx-indexing Groestlcoin Core node.
Groestlcoin Eclair will use any GRS it finds in the Groestlcoin Core wallet to fund any channels you choose to open. Eclair will return GRS from closed channels to this wallet.
You can configure your Groestlcoin Node to use either p2sh-segwit addresses or BECH32 addresses, Groestlcoin Eclair is compatible with both modes.

## Changes

• Multipart payments
• Trampoline Routing Preview
This application is licensed under Apache. There is no warranty and no party shall be made liable to you for damages. If you lose coins due to this app, no compensation will be given. Use this app solely at your own risk.
Groestlcoin Eclair is developed in Scala, a powerful functional language that runs on the JVM, and is packaged as a JAR (Java Archive) file. We provide 2 different packages, which internally use the same core libraries:

### Source code

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/eclai
Groestlcoin C-Lightning Updated to v0.8.2
C-lightning: A specification compliant Lightning Network implementation in C.
C-lightning is a lightweight, highly customisable and standard compliant implementation of the Lightning Network protocol.

## Changes

• We now support gifting mgro to the peer when opening a channel, via push_msat, providing a brand new way to lose money!
• Invoice routehints can be overridden using exposeprivatechannels:
• • Wallet withdraw transactions now set nLocktime, making them blend in more with other wallets.
• Preliminary support for plugins hooks which can replace the default groestlcoin-cli with other blockchain querying methods (API may change in future releases though!).
• listforwards now records the outgoing short_channel_id, even if it wasn't possible to start forwarding.
• Plugins can set additional feature bits, for more experimentation.
• More than one plugin can register for the htlc_accepted hook: others will become multi-user in future releases.
• Prevent a case where grossly unbalanced channels could become unusable.
• New config option --large-channels (also known as 'wumbo') which enables opening channels of any size. (Note that your peer must also support large channels.)
• This release includes a keysend plugin, which will enable receiving 'keysend' payments, as first introduced by Lightning Labs. Note that the included keysend plugin is receive only for this release. Nodes which do not want the hassle of spontaneous unrequested payments should add 'disable-plugin=keysend' to their config!
• We'll now announce multiple connection endpoints for a single 'type', e.g. multiple IPv4 addresses.
• Big performance improvement in the pay command (~1s speedup on average).
• c-lightning nodes can now participate in creating larger channels (with the --large-channel config option).
• We now wait until the first payment through a channel before updating the feerate; this should help with some spurious closures at channel open or re-connect that were occurring against older versions of other implementations.
• A new command getsharedsecret for getting the BOLT-compliant shared secret finding for a node and a point.
• Facilities for building rendezvous compatible onions has been added to the onion devtool.
• Plugin options will now respect the type they were given in the manifest.
• Fixes with plugin cleanups and hangs.
• Python2 has been removed as a dependence.

### Install on Linux:

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/lightning/blob/mastedoc/INSTALL.md#to-build-on-ubuntu

### Install on OSX:

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/lightning/blob/mastedoc/INSTALL.md#to-build-on-macos

### Source code

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/lightning
Groestlcoin SparkWallet Updated to v0.2.14
Groestlcoin Spark Lightning Wallet Android: A minimalistic wallet GUI for c-lightning in Android.
Groestlcoin Spark is currently oriented for technically advanced users and is not an all-in-one package, but rather a "remote control" interface for a c-lightning node that has to be managed separately.

## Changes

• Fix bug with missing channel reserve
• Fix channels view
• Detect if the "base directory" is provided and default to the Groestlcoin mainnet network subdirectory within in.
• Don't display unconfirmed onchain balance
• Fix: Some QR codes not read properly in the web QR scanner
• Fix: Resolve TLS issues with NodeJS 10
• Electron: Update to v8
• Fix bug in automatic credentials generation
• Fix Android crashes caused by plugin-local-notifications
• Cordova Android: Allow connecting to server in cleartext
This application is licensed under MIT. There is no warranty and no party shall be made liable to you for damages. If you lose coins due to this app, no compensation will be given. Use this app solely at your own risk.

### Source code

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/groestlcoin-spark/

# Boolean data type

In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false) which is intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra. It is named after George Boole, who first defined an algebraic system of logic in the mid 19th century. The Boolean data type is primarily associated with conditional) statements, which allow different actions by changing control flow depending on whether a programmer-specified Boolean condition evaluates to true or false. It is a special case of a more general logical data type (see probabilistic logic)—logic doesn't always need to be Boolean.

## Generalities

In programming languages with a built-in Boolean data type, such as Pascal) and Java), the comparison operators such as > and ≠ are usually defined to return a Boolean value. Conditional and iterative commands may be defined to test Boolean-valued expressions.
Languages with no explicit Boolean data type, like C90 and Lisp), may still represent truth values by some other data type. Common Lisp uses an empty list for false, and any other value for true. The C programming language uses an integer) type, where relational expressions like i > j and logical expressions connected by && and || are defined to have value 1 if true and 0 if false, whereas the test parts of if , while , for , etc., treat any non-zero value as true.[1][2] Indeed, a Boolean variable may be regarded (and implemented) as a numerical variable with one binary digit (bit), which can store only two values. The implementation of Booleans in computers are most likely represented as a full word), rather than a bit; this is usually due to the ways computers transfer blocks of information.
Most programming languages, even those with no explicit Boolean type, have support for Boolean algebraic operations such as conjunction (AND , & , * ), disjunction (OR , | , + ), equivalence (EQV , = , == ), exclusive or/non-equivalence (XOR , NEQV , ^ , != ), and negation (NOT , ~ , ! ).
In some languages, like Ruby), Smalltalk, and Alice) the true and false values belong to separate classes), i.e., True and False , respectively, so there is no one Boolean type.
In SQL, which uses a three-valued logic for explicit comparisons because of its special treatment of Nulls), the Boolean data type (introduced in SQL:1999) is also defined to include more than two truth values, so that SQL Booleans can store all logical values resulting from the evaluation of predicates in SQL. A column of Boolean type can also be restricted to just TRUE and FALSE though.

## ALGOL and the built-in boolean type

One of the earliest programming languages to provide an explicit boolean data type is ALGOL 60 (1960) with values true and false and logical operators denoted by symbols ' ∧ {\displaystyle \wedge } 📷' (and), ' ∨ {\displaystyle \vee } 📷' (or), ' ⊃ {\displaystyle \supset } 📷' (implies), ' ≡ {\displaystyle \equiv } 📷' (equivalence), and ' ¬ {\displaystyle \neg } 📷' (not). Due to input device and character set limits on many computers of the time, however, most compilers used alternative representations for many of the operators, such as AND or 'AND' .
This approach with boolean as a built-in (either primitive or otherwise predefined) data type was adopted by many later programming languages, such as Simula 67 (1967), ALGOL 68 (1970),[3] Pascal) (1970), Ada) (1980), Java) (1995), and C#) (2000), among others.

## Fortran

The first version of FORTRAN (1957) and its successor FORTRAN II (1958) have no logical values or operations; even the conditional IF statement takes an arithmetic expression and branches to one of three locations according to its sign; see arithmetic IF. FORTRAN IV (1962), however, follows the ALGOL 60 example by providing a Boolean data type (LOGICAL ), truth literals (.TRUE. and .FALSE. ), Boolean-valued numeric comparison operators (.EQ. , .GT. , etc.), and logical operators (.NOT. , .AND. , .OR. ). In FORMAT statements, a specific format descriptor ('L ') is provided for the parsing or formatting of logical values.[4]

## Lisp and Scheme

The language Lisp) (1958) never had a built-in Boolean data type. Instead, conditional constructs like cond assume that the logical value false is represented by the empty list () , which is defined to be the same as the special atom nil or NIL ; whereas any other s-expression is interpreted as true. For convenience, most modern dialects of Lisp predefine the atom t to have value t , so that t can be used as a mnemonic notation for true.
This approach (any value can be used as a Boolean value) was retained in most Lisp dialects (Common Lisp, Scheme), Emacs Lisp), and similar models were adopted by many scripting languages, even ones having a distinct Boolean type or Boolean values; although which values are interpreted as false and which are true vary from language to language. In Scheme, for example, the false value is an atom distinct from the empty list, so the latter is interpreted as true.

The language Pascal) (1970) introduced the concept of programmer-defined enumerated types. A built-in Boolean data type was then provided as a predefined enumerated type with values FALSE and TRUE . By definition, all comparisons, logical operations, and conditional statements applied to and/or yielded Boolean values. Otherwise, the Boolean type had all the facilities which were available for enumerated types in general, such as ordering and use as indices. In contrast, converting between Boolean s and integers (or any other types) still required explicit tests or function calls, as in ALGOL 60. This approach (Boolean is an enumerated type) was adopted by most later languages which had enumerated types, such as Modula, Ada), and Haskell).

## C, C++, Objective-C, AWK

Initial implementations of the language C) (1972) provided no Boolean type, and to this day Boolean values are commonly represented by integers (int s) in C programs. The comparison operators (> , == , etc.) are defined to return a signed integer (int ) result, either 0 (for false) or 1 (for true). Logical operators (&& , || , ! , etc.) and condition-testing statements (if , while ) assume that zero is false and all other values are true.
After enumerated types (enum s) were added to the American National Standards Institute version of C, ANSI C (1989), many C programmers got used to defining their own Boolean types as such, for readability reasons. However, enumerated types are equivalent to integers according to the language standards; so the effective identity between Booleans and integers is still valid for C programs.
Standard C) (since C99) provides a boolean type, called _Bool . By including the header stdbool.h , one can use the more intuitive name bool and the constants true and false . The language guarantees that any two true values will compare equal (which was impossible to achieve before the introduction of the type). Boolean values still behave as integers, can be stored in integer variables, and used anywhere integers would be valid, including in indexing, arithmetic, parsing, and formatting. This approach (Boolean values are just integers) has been retained in all later versions of C. Note, that this does not mean that any integer value can be stored in a boolean variable.
C++ has a separate Boolean data type bool , but with automatic conversions from scalar and pointer values that are very similar to those of C. This approach was adopted also by many later languages, especially by some scripting languages such as AWK.
Objective-C also has a separate Boolean data type BOOL , with possible values being YES or NO , equivalents of true and false respectively.[5] Also, in Objective-C compilers that support C99, C's _Bool type can be used, since Objective-C is a superset of C.

## Perl and Lua

Perl has no boolean data type. Instead, any value can behave as boolean in boolean context (condition of if or while statement, argument of && or || , etc.). The number 0 , the strings "0" and "" , the empty list () , and the special value undef evaluate to false.[6] All else evaluates to true.
Lua) has a boolean data type, but non-boolean values can also behave as booleans. The non-value nil evaluates to false, whereas every other data type always evaluates to true, regardless of value.

## Tcl

Tcl has no separate Boolean type. Like in C, the integers 0 (false) and 1 (true - in fact any nonzero integer) are used.[7]
Examples of coding:
set v 1 if { $v } { puts "V is 1 or true" } The above will show "V is 1 or true" since the expression evaluates to '1' set v "" if {$v } ....
The above will render an error as variable 'v' cannot be evaluated as '0' or '1'

## Python, Ruby, and JavaScript

Python), from version 2.3 forward, has a bool type which is a subclass) of int , the standard integer type.[8] It has two possible values: True and False , which are special versions of 1 and 0 respectively and behave as such in arithmetic contexts. Also, a numeric value of zero (integer or fractional), the null value (None ), the empty string), and empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.) are considered Boolean false; all other values are considered Boolean true by default.[9] Classes can define how their instances are treated in a Boolean context through the special method __nonzero__ (Python 2) or __bool__ (Python 3). For containers, __len__ (the special method for determining the length of containers) is used if the explicit Boolean conversion method is not defined.
In Ruby), in contrast, only nil (Ruby's null value) and a special false object are false, all else (including the integer 0 and empty arrays) is true.
In JavaScript, the empty string ("" ), null , undefined , NaN , +0, −0 and false [10] are sometimes called falsy (of which the complement) is truthy) to distinguish between strictly type-checked and coerced Booleans.[11] As opposed to Python, empty containers (arrays , Maps, Sets) are considered truthy. Languages such as PHP also use this approach.

## Next Generation Shell

Next Generation Shell, has Bool type. It has two possible values: true and false . Bool is not interchangeable with Int and have to be converted explicitly if needed. When a Boolean value of an expression is needed (for example in if statement), Bool method is called. Bool method for built-in types is defined such that it returns false for a numeric value of zero, the null value, the empty string), empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.), external processes that exited with non-zero exit code; for other values Bool returns true. Types for which Bool method is defined can be used in Boolean context. When evaluating an expression in Boolean context, If no appropriate Bool method is defined, an exception is thrown.

## SQL

Main article: Null (SQL) § Comparisons with NULL and the three-valued logic (3VL)#Comparisonswith_NULL_and_the_three-valued_logic(3VL))
Booleans appear in SQL when a condition is needed, such as WHERE clause, in form of predicate which is produced by using operators such as comparison operators, IN operator, IS (NOT) NULL etc. However, apart from TRUE and FALSE, these operators can also yield a third state, called UNKNOWN, when comparison with NULL is made.
The treatment of boolean values differs between SQL systems.
For example, in Microsoft SQL Server, boolean value is not supported at all, neither as a standalone data type nor representable as an integer. It shows an error message "An expression of non-boolean type specified in a context where a condition is expected" if a column is directly used in the WHERE clause, e.g. SELECT a FROM t WHERE a , while statement such as SELECT column IS NOT NULL FROM t yields a syntax error. The BIT data type, which can only store integers 0 and 1 apart from NULL, is commonly used as a workaround to store Boolean values, but workarounds need to be used such as UPDATE t SET flag = IIF(col IS NOT NULL, 1, 0) WHERE flag = 0 to convert between the integer and boolean expression.
In PostgreSQL, there is a distinct BOOLEAN type as in the standard[12] which allows predicates to be stored directly into a BOOLEAN column, and allows using a BOOLEAN column directly as a predicate in WHERE clause.
In MySQL, BOOLEAN is treated as an alias as TINYINT(1)[13], TRUE is the same as integer 1 and FALSE is the same is integer 0.[14], and treats any non-zero integer as true when evaluating conditions.
The SQL92 standard introduced IS (NOT) TRUE, IS (NOT) FALSE, IS (NOT) UNKNOWN operators which evaluate a predicate, which predated the introduction of boolean type in SQL:1999
The SQL:1999 standard introduced a BOOLEAN data type as an optional feature (T031). When restricted by a NOT NULL constraint, a SQL BOOLEAN behaves like Booleans in other languages, which can store only TRUE and FALSE values. However, if it is nullable, which is the default like all other SQL data types, it can have the special null) value also. Although the SQL standard defines three literals) for the BOOLEAN type – TRUE, FALSE, and UNKNOWN – it also says that the NULL BOOLEAN and UNKNOWN "may be used interchangeably to mean exactly the same thing".[15][16] This has caused some controversy because the identification subjects UNKNOWN to the equality comparison rules for NULL. More precisely UNKNOWN = UNKNOWN is not TRUE but UNKNOWN/NULL.[17] As of 2012 few major SQL systems implement the T031 feature.[18] Firebird and PostgreSQL are notable exceptions, although PostgreSQL implements no UNKNOWN literal; NULL can be used instead.[19]

Data typesUninterpreted
Numeric
Pointer)
Text
Composite
Other
Related topics

## References

1. "PostgreSQL: Documentation: 10: 8.6. Boolean Type". www.postgresql.org. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
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